Growth conditions and preservation methods of edible fungi
Wanda (Hong Kong) Biotechnology Group Co., Ltd. can supply a large number of various edible fungi. Edible fungi grow in places rich in organic matter with their white or light mycelium. When the conditions are suitable, it forms fruiting bodies and becomes a good food for human beings. Mycelium and fruiting body are the two main stages of the growth and development of general edible fungi. All kinds of edible fungi are classified and identified according to the morphology of fruiting body, such as mushroom shape, mushroom cover, bacterial fold or fruiting layer, spore and Mushroom Stalk, combined with the differences of ecology and physiology (see laminaria, Trichoderma, tremella and umbellifera). When distinguishing wild edible fungi from poisonous mushrooms by experience, it is also based on the shape and color of fruiting bodies. Some edible fungi grow on dead tree trunks or wood segments, such as Lentinus edodes, agaric, tremella, Pleurotus ostreatus, Hericium erinaceus, Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus ostreatus; Some grow on the stems of herbaceous plants and the dung of livestock and poultry, such as mushrooms and straw mushrooms; Others grow together with plant roots and are called mycorrhizal fungi (see mycorrhizal), such as Tricholoma matsutake, Boletus, etc. The above characteristics also determine the distribution of various wild edible fungi in natural ecological conditions. Moist conditions are not strictly required for edible fungi in the mycelial growth stage, but the relative humidity in the environment needs to be more than 85% when they come out of mushrooms or ears, and suitable temperature, ventilation and light are required. For example, mushrooms, Lentinus edodes, Flammulina velutipes, smooth mushrooms and Tricholoma matsutake are suitable for mushroom production in spring and autumn with low temperature or in low temperature zone (about 15 ℃); Straw mushroom, agaric fungus and Phoenix Tail mushroom are suitable for fruiting in summer or under high temperature conditions in tropical and subtropical areas.
Preservation of edible fungi
Chemical preservation of edible fungi has the advantages of simple method, low cost and high degree of preservation.
Sodium chloride (salt) preservation
After finishing, the newly collected Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus ostreatus are immersed in 0.6% salt water for about 10 minutes, drained and stored in plastic bags, which can keep fresh for 5 ~ 8 days.
Sodium pyrosulfite preservation
Spread the newly harvested Pleurotus ostreatus on the clean cement ground, spray 0.15% sodium pyrosulfite aqueous solution on the mushroom body, and turn the mushroom body while spraying, so as to spray evenly. Put it into plastic bags after spraying, seal it immediately and store it in a cool place. It can be kept fresh for 8 ~ 10 days at 10 ℃ ~ 25 ℃. When eating, rinse with water.
Rice soup film preservation
Use the thin rice soup for rice, add 1% soda or 5% baking soda, and cool to room temperature. Dip the harvested fresh mushrooms into the lye of rice soup, take them out after 5 minutes and put them in a cool and dry place. At this time, a layer of rice soup film is formed on the surface of the mushroom, which can isolate the air and keep fresh for 3 days.
Ascorbic acid preservation
After harvesting Flammulina velutipes, Lentinus edodes and straw mushrooms, spray 0.1% ascorbic acid on the fresh mushrooms and put them into non-ferrous containers. They can be kept fresh for 3 ~ 5 days, and their freshness and color basically do not change.
Preservation of mixed solution of sodium chloride and calcium chloride
A mixed soaking solution was prepared by adding 0.2% sodium chloride and 0.1% calcium chloride. Soak the freshly harvested fresh mushrooms in the mixed solution, cover them with a bamboo grate and add a heavy object to immerse the mushrooms below the liquid level for 30 minutes. They can be kept fresh for about 5 days at 15 ℃ ~ 25 ℃ and more than 10 days at 5 ℃ ~ 10 ℃.
Preservation of mixed solution of ascorbic acid and citric acid
Mix 0.05% ascorbic acid and 0.02% citric acid into a mixed fresh-keeping solution, soak the fresh mushrooms in the fresh-keeping solution for 10 ~ 20 minutes, remove them and drain them, and seal them with plastic bags.
Bijiu (B9) preservation
Bijiu is a plant growth retarder. Soak the fresh mushrooms in 0.1% bijiu aqueous solution for 10 minutes, take them out, drain, bag and seal them, and keep them fresh at 5 ℃ ~ 25 ℃, which can keep them fresh for more than 15 days. It is suitable for the preservation of mushrooms, Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Flammulina velutipes.
Maifan stone preservation
Put the fresh straw mushroom into a plastic box, submerge the mushroom with Maifan stone water, and keep it fresh at a low temperature below 0 ℃. The preservation period can reach 70 days. Moreover, the amino acid content is not different from that of fresh mushroom, and the color and taste are good.