Morphological structure and classification of edible fungi
Release : 2021-12-13
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Morphological structure and classification of edible fungi
Wanda (Hong Kong) Biotechnology Group Co., Ltd. is a large supplier of edible fungi.
1、 Mycelium 1. The source spore of mycelium is a small reproductive unit. Under suitable conditions, it germinates to form tubular filaments. Each filaments is called mycelium. Hyphae are usually colorless or colored, growing from the top, spreading and spreading in the matrix, branching repeatedly to form a group of hyphae, commonly known as mycelium. 2. The binucleate mycelium and the formation of fruiting bodies. When mononuclear spores germinate, they produce a mycelium, that is, primary mycelium. This mycelium is multinucleated at the beginning, but soon produces a diaphragm, so that each cell has a nucleus, also known as mononuclear mycelium. Mononuclear hyphae cannot form normal fruiting bodies, and must be developed from binucleate hyphae after binucleate. The binucleate of mononuclear hyphae is carried out by "homozygous" or "heterozygous". Homozygous hyphae ---- when mononuclear hyphae growing after the germination of the same spore join each other, their protoplasm and nucleus combine in the same cell (cytoplasmic mating) to form binuclear hyphae. This mononuclear hyphae is monoecious, which is called self compatibility. A few edible fungi belong to this type, such as mushroom, straw mushroom, etc. Heterozygous junction ---- refers to the mass matching between mononuclear hyphae produced by two spores with different genders. The same sex will never be compatible and can not form fruiting bodies. This phenomenon is called self sterility. Most edible fungi belong to this type. Primary hyphae form secondary hyphae, i.e. binucleated. Compared with primary hyphae, it has two nuclei, the mycelium is thick and long, can be used as reproductive materials, can form fruiting bodies, and exists for the longest time. Clavicular union ---- is a special form of binucleate mycelium reproduction. Through this combination, the mycelium expands and grows continuously. The process is as follows: first, a hook shaped protrusion is generated between the two nuclei, one of which moves to the mouth shape, one stays at the cell base, and the two nuclei divide at the same time to produce four sub nuclei. Then, two nuclei in the hook shaped protrusion, one of which remains in the hook, and the other enters the front end of the mycelial cell. One of the two nuclei originally left in the mycelial cell moves forward, The other is left at the base. At this time, the hook like protrusion bends downward and contacts the mycelial cell wall. The cell wall at the contact part melts into a bridge shape. At the same time, a diaphragm is formed at the base of the hook like protrusion. Finally, the nucleus in the hook enters the mycelial cell from the melting part of the mycelial wall, and a diaphragm is formed under the bridge to divide the mycelial cell into two daughter cells. Clavicular union makes each progeny cell contain nuclei from parents. When the mycelial tip continues to elongate forward, the new clavicular Union begins again. Formation of fruiting body: mononuclear hypha - binucleate hypha - tertiary hypha (Organization) - fruiting body. 3. The concept of dormant body (1) is a kind of bacteria that stops its activity or assimilation during bad environment. It is usually realized in the form of dormant spores, mycelial mass or sclerotia. (2) types of dormant bodies. Dormant bodies include dormant spores, sclerotia, mycelial cords and other dormant spores, such as chlamydospores of Volvariella volvacea. Sclerotia: mycelial tissue formed by tightly intertwined hyphae of mycelium. Mycelium: the mycelium is tangled into a rope shape. II. Fruiting body 1. Types of fruiting body, such as umbrella fungus type, ear fungus type, ascomycete type, etc. 2. The composition of fruiting body is composed of cap, fold, stipe, bacterial ring, bacterial tray, etc. (1) the cap is the main edible part of edible fungi. (2) The stipe has the function of plant stem and can transport nutrients and water. (3) The fold is the place where spores are produced. The attachment relationship between fold and stipe: Free: such as straw mushroom, mushroom, etc. Curved or concave: such as mushrooms. Extended or vertical: such as lateral ear. Straight or adnate: such as scale ears. (4) the fungus ring part of the edible fungus has, which is a ring left on the stalk by the inner fungus curtain. (5) some edible fungi in the fungus tray have, which is a bag or ring left at the base of the stipe by the outer bacterial curtain. 3. Morphogenesis starts from basidiospore germination, goes through primary hyphae in mononuclear stage to secondary binucleate hyphae after binucleate, and finally reaches physiological mature binucleate hyphae (trisodium hyphae) to form fruiting bodies. Among many basidiomycetes, the development mode of fruiting body can be divided into four types: naked fruit type, indumentum type, pseudoindumentum type and semi indumentum type. 1. Naked fruit type, such as ears, Pleurotus ostreatus, Ganoderma lucidum, etc. 2. Indumentum types such as puffer and bald puffer 3. Pseudoindumentum types such as tiger skin Lentinus edodes, Boletus, red mushroom, etc. 4. Semiindumentum is very common in mushrooms. 4. The classification of large fungi. There are more than 2000 kinds of edible fungi in the world and more than 600 kinds in China. They belong to the subclass of Ascomycetes, Discomycetes (including truffles and Discomycetes), basidiomycetes (including Laminaria and abdominal fungi). V. poisonous bacteria and their identification 1. Bacterial species and identification (1) Amanita poisonous bacteria: multi poisonous bacteria are Amanita species. The common point is that the spores are white, the bacterial folds are free, there are bacterial trays and often bacterial rings. Poison goose ointment: the surface of the cap is grayish brown to dark grayish green, the bacterial ring is superior, the bacterial tray is large and bract. 2. Toxin (1) protoplasmic toxin (2) neurohallucinogenic toxin (3) blood toxin (4) gastrointestinal toxin